Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
a-, ab-, abs- from, away from, away, different from, separated from Latin ab "away", from Greek apo "away" abnormal, abrasion, absorb, abstract
a-, an- not, without Greek Greek a-/a?- "a-/an" "not" atypical, ahistorical
ac-, ak-, acu- sharp or pointed Latin acutus past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" acid, acupunture
acr-, acro- height, summit, tip Greek Greek ????? kros "high", "extreme" acrophobia acrobat, acronym acromegalia
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" adapt, advance, affect, ascend
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipose
aer-, aero- air, atmosphere Greek aer "air" aeronautics, aerosol
aesth- feeling, sensation Greek aisthetikos "of sense perception" from aisthanesthai "to perceive" aesthetics
agr-, agri- field Greek and Latin from Greek agros and Latin ager, agr- "field" agriculture, pilgrim
am-, amor- love, loving Latin amor "love" from amare "to love" amateur, amorous
ambi- both, on both sides Latin ambi "on both sides" ambidextrous, ambivalent
amic-, -imic- friend Latin amicus amicable, inimical
amphi- around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek amphi "on both sides" amphibian
ampl- ample Latin amplus amplification
ana- again, against, back Greek from Greek prefix ana- "again", "against" anaphylaxis anabaptist
anima- breath Latin anima "breath" animal, animation
ann-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" annual, anniversary, millennium
ant-, anti- against, opposed to, preventive Greek anti "before" "against" antibiotic, antibody, antipodes
ante-, anti- before, in front of, prior to Latin Latin from Greek anti "before", "against" antediluvian, antebellum, anticipate
anth-, antho- flower Greek anthos "flower" anther, anthology
anthropo-, anthro- human Greek anthropos "man" anthropology, anthropomorphic
aqu- water Latin aqua aquarium
ar- plow, till Latin arare arable
ar- burn, dry Latin arere, "be dry or parched" arid
archaeo-, archeo- ancient Greek arkhaios "ancient" from arkhe "beginning" archaeology or archeology, archaic
arct- , arcto- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold; used as the scientific name of some bear species, e.g. Ursus arctos horribilis Greek arktos "bear" Arctic Ocean
argent- silver Latin argentum "silver" argent, Argentina
arthr- , arthro- joint Greek arthron "joint" arthropod
astr-, astro- star, star-shaped Greek astron "star" astronomy
athl- prize Greek athlos "contest" athlete
aud-, audi- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" auditorium, auditory, audio
aug-, auct- grow, increase Latin augere "to increase" augmentation
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureole, aure
auri- Relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" auricle
aut- auto- self; directed from within Greek a?t?? (autos) "self", "same" automobile, autonomy
avi- bird Latin avis "bird" aviary, aviation
axi- axis Greek Latin from Greek axios "worth" axis, axiology


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
bac- rod-shaped Latin from baculum "rod" bacilla, bacteria
baro- weight, pressure Greek (barus) barometer, barograph, baroreceptor
basi- at the bottom Greek from a???, to walk, march, ?s?? "step" basic, basis
bathy-, batho- deep, depth Greek a??? (baths, baths) "deep" batholith
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell(i)- war Latin bellum, belli bellicose, belligerent, antebellum
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) benefit, benign
bi- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" binocular, bigamy, biscotto
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus imbibe
bibl- book Greek ????? (biblon) "book" bibliography, bible
bi(o)- life Greek ??? (bos) "life" biology, biologist, biosphere
blast- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek ?ast???, "to put forth shoots" sideroblast
bon(i)- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bor- north Greek / Latin (boreas) ???a? (brras) "the north wind" borealis
botan- plant Greek (botane) botany
bov- cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine
brachi-, brachio- arm Greek ?a???? (brakhon) "arm" brachial artery
brach- short Greek ?a??? (brakhs, brakhs) "short"
brady- slow Greek ?ad?? (brads, brads) bradycardia
branch- gill Greek ??????? (brgkhion, brnkhion) "gill" branchiopod
brev(i)- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviation, brevity
briz- nod Greek (brizo)
brom- oats Greek ???? (brmos) "oats"
bronch- windpipe Greek ?????? (brgkhos, brnkhos) bronchitis
bront- thunder Greek ???t? (bronte) Brontosaurus
bucc- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal
bulb- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbous
bull- bubble, flask Latin bulla, "bubble" ebullient
burs- pouch, purse Latin bursary, disburse


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
cac(o)- bad Greek (kakos) cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere accident, cadence, case
calc- stone Latin probably from Greek from Latin calx "lime", probably from Greek khalix "pebble" "limestone" calculus, calcite, calcium
calli- beautiful Greek from Greek kallos "beauty" calligraphy
calor- heat Latin calor "heat" calorie
calyp- cover Greek (kaluptein) apocalypse
camer- vault Latin camera bicameral, camera
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" champion, campaign
can(i)- dog Latin canis "dog" canine, Canis Major
can-, cant- sing Latin canere "sing" canto, cantata, cantor
cand- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candid, incandescent, candle, candela
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- take, hold Latin capere "take or hold" (note the vowel change from a to i in compounds) capture, captive, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis "head" capital, chief, chef
capr- goat Latin caper, capri Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbo- coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration
carci- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek karkinos "crab" carcinoma
cardi(o)- relating to the heart Greek kardia "heart" cardiology, cardiograph
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal
carn- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnival, carnivore
carpo- relating to fruit Greek from Greek karpos "fruit" carpology
carp- relating to the wrist Greek from Greek karpos "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cata- down Greek kata "down" catastrophe, catatonia
caten- chain Latin catena concatenation
cathar- pure Greek (katharos) catharsis
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal
cav- hollow Latin cavus "hollow" cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- go Latin cedere procession, recede
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen(o)- new Greek (kainos) Cenozoic
cen(o)- common Greek (koinos) cenospecies, Koine Greek
cens- Latin censere census
cent- hundred Latin centum "hundred" cent, centennial, centurion
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek ???t??? (kntron) "needle", "spur" eccentric
cephalo- head Greek from Greek kephale "head" cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram- clay Greek (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek from Greek keras "horn" ceratin, cornea
cern- Latin cernere discern
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chiro- of the hand or hands Greek from Greek kheir "hand" chiroptera, chiropractic
chelo- relating to a turtle Greek from Greek khelone "tortoise" chelonia
chloro- green Greek from Greek khloros "green" chlorine, chlorophyll
choreo- relating to dance Greek from Greek khoreia "dancing in unison" from khoros "chorus" choreography
chord- cord Latin chorda "rope" chordata
chrom- color Greek khroma "color" chromosome, chromium
chryso- gold Greek khrusos "gold" chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia
cine- motion Greek (kine-) cinema
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere succinct
circ- circle Latin circus circus
circum- around Latin circum "around" circumference
cirr- orange Greek kirros cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
civ- citizen Latin civis civility
clad- branch Greek (klados)
clar- clear Latin clarus clarity, declaration
clast- broken Greek klastos "broken" iconoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close Latin claudere clause, exclusion
clav- key Greek from Greek kleis "key" from kleiein "to close" conclave
cl(e)ist- closed
cleithr- bar, key
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed, lean, recline Latin -clinare declination, inclined
cochl- shell Greek
coel- hollow Greek (koilos)
cogn- know Latin cognitive
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander
coll- neck Latin collum collar
color- color Latin color coloration
con-, co-, col-, com- with, together, joined Latin cum connect, collide, compress
condi- season Latin condire condiment
cono- cone Greek konos conic, conical
contra- against Latin contra contrast
copro- dung Greek (kopros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac- raven Greek (korax, korakos) coracoid
cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial
corn- horn Latin cornu cornucopia
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corpse
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis
cosmet- Greek (kosmet-) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek (kotule) cotyledon
crani- skull cranium
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
cre- make Latin creare creation, creature
crep- boot, shoe Greek (krepis, krepidos)
cribi- sieve
cric- ring
cris-, crit- judge Greek crisis, critic
crisp- curled Latin crispus
crist- crest
crosso- fringe, tassel Greek (krossoi)
cru(rals)- shank
cruc(i)- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify
crypt- hidden Greek (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography
cten- comb Greek (kteis, ktenos)
cub- cube Greek (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
curr-, curs- run Latin currere concurrent, recursion
curv- bent Latin curvus curvature
cusp- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cut(i)- skin Latin cutis cuticle
cyan- blue Greek ??a??? (kuanos) cyanide
cycl- circular Greek ?????? (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind- roll Greek (kulindros) cylinder
cyn- dog Greek (kuon, kunos) cynosure
cyst- capsule Greek (kustis) cystic
cyt(o)- cell Greek (kutos) cytoplasm


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
dactyl- finger Greek d??t????, finger dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn- Latin damnare condemn, damnation
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit
deci- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decibel, decimate
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek- ten Greek deka, ten decagram, decahedron
delt- Greek (delta) deltoid
dem- people Greek demos, people demagogue, democracy
den- ten each Latin deni denary
dendr-, dendro- resembling a tree Greek dendron: akin to drys, tree dendrite
dens- thick Latin densus condense, density
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentures
derm- skin Greek d??a (derma) skin hypodermic
deuter- second Greek de?te??? (deuteros) "second" Deuteronomy
dexter- right Latin dexter dexterity
dextro- right Greek de?-, right
di- two Greek dicot
dia- apart, through Greek d?a diameter
dict- say, speak Latin dicere, dictus dictation
digit- finger Latin digitus digital
dino- terrible, fearfully great Greek (deinos) dinosaur
dipl- Greek diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor
dodec- twelve Greek d?de?a (dodeka) dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox- opinion, teaching Greek dogmatic
dom- Latin domus dome
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors- back Latin dorsum dorsal
du- two Latin duo dual
dub- doubtful Latin dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin dux abduction, conductor, introduce
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis
dur- hard Latin durus durable
dy- two Greek (duo) dyad
dys- badly, ill Greek d?s dysentery


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ec- out Greek (ek) eccentric
eco- house Greek (oikos) ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek (ektos) ectoderm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus edible
ego- self egocentric
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, redeem
eme- vomit Greek (emetos) emetic
emul- Latin aemulus, aemulare emulation
en-, em- in Greek (en) emphasis
endo- inside Greek (endo) endocrine
engy- narrow Greek
ennea- nine Greek (ennea) ennead, enneagon
ens- sword Latin ensis
eo- dawn, east Greek
epi-, ep- upon Greek (epi) epicenter, epoch
epistem- knowledge or science Greek
equ-, -iqu- even, level Latin aequus equal
equ- horse Latin equus equestrian
erg- work Greek (ergon) ergonomics
err- stray Latin errare aberration, errant
erythr(o)- red Greek e?????? (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek (eso) esoteric
eth- Greek e??? (ethos)
ethm- sieve Greek
ethn- Greek (ethnos) ethnic
etym(o)- true Greek (etumos) etymology
eu- well Greek (eu) euphoria
eur- wide Greek (eurus)
ex-, e-, ef- from, out of Latin ex exclude, extrude, extend
exo- outside Greek exothermic
exter-, extra- outer Latin exterior
extrem- Latin extremus extremity


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
fab- bean Latin faba
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect- make Latin facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis falciform
fall-, -fell-, fals- Latin fallere, falsus falsity
fallac- false Latin fallax, fallacis fallacy
famili- Latin familiarity
fant- to show Greek fantasy
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fascicle
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuate
feder- Latin foedus, foederis confederation, federal
fel- cat Latin feles feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, quality or condition of being female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur, femoris femoral
fend-, fens- Latin fendere defend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra fenestration
fer- carry Latin ferre reference, transfer
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid
fic- fig Latin ficus
fid- faith, trust Latin fides confide
fil- thread Latin filum filament
fili- Latin filius affiliate
find-, fiss- split Latin findere fission
firm- Latin firmus, firmare confirmation
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistule
fl- blow Latin flare flatulence, inflation
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus flexor, inflection
flig-, flict- strike Latin fligere inflict
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency, influx
foc- hearth Latin focus focal
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliate
font- spring Latin fons, fontis
for- bore Latin forare perforation
form- shape Latin forma deformity, formation
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis fortification
fovea- shallow round depression
frang-, -fring-, fract-, frag- break Latin frangere fracture, fragment, infringe
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frater fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricare dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigate
fund- bottom Latin fundus, fundare fundamental, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fusus profusion
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi function
fur-, furt- steal Latin furare furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus obfuscation


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
galact- milk Greek (gala, galaktos) galactic
gastr- stomach Greek (gaster) gastric, gastroenterologist
ge(o)- earth Greek ?? (ge) geology
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelatin
ger-, gest- bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus digest, gestation
germin- sprout Latin germen, germinis germination
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator
glob- Latin globus global, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination
grad-, -gred-, gress- walk, step, go Latin gradus, gradere, gressus grade, regress
gramm- letter Greek ??aa (gramma) grammatic
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous
graph- draw, write Greek (graphe) graphic, graphology
grat- thank, please Latin gratus gratitude
grav- heavy Latin gravis gravity
greg- flock Latin grex, gregis gregarious, segregation
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus gusto
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural
gymn- nude Greek (gymnos) gymnasium


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit- have Latin habere, habitus habit, prohibition
haem(o)- blood Greek ??a (haima) haemophilia
hal(o)- salt Greek (hals, halos) halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, inhale
hapl(o)- simple Greek (haplos) haploid
haur-, haust- draw Latin haurire, haustus exhaust
heli(o)- sun Greek ????? helium,heliotrope
hemi- half Greek ??s?? (hemisus) hemisphere
hen- one Greek ?? (hen) henad, hyphen
hendec- eleven Greek ??de?a (hendeka) hendecagon
hept- seven Greek (hepta) heptagon
her-, hes- cling Latin haerere, haesus adhesive, coherent
herb- grass Latin herba herbicide
hered- heir Latin heres, heredis heredity
herp- creep Greek herpetology
heter(o)- different, other Greek ?te??? (heteros) heterodox
heur- find Greek ????s?? heuristic
hex- six Greek ?? (hex) hexagon
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hipp(o)- horse Greek ?pp?? (hippos) hippodrome
hirsut- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus hispidity
histri- actor histrionic
hod- way Greek ?d?? (hodos) cathode, hodometer
hol(o)- whole Greek (holos) holistic
hom(o)- same Greek (homos) homosexual
homeo- like Greek (homoios)
homin- human Latin homo, hominis hominid
homal- even, flat Greek (homalos) anomalous
honor- esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable
horm- that which excites Greek hormone
hort(i)- garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture
hospit- host Latin hospes, hospitis hospitality
host- enemy Latin hostis hostile
hum- ground Latin humus, humare exhumation, inhume
hyal- glass Greek (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr(o)- water Greek ?d?? hydrology, hydrologist, Hydrogen, Hydrate, dehydrate, Hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydraulic, Hydrolysis, hydrous, hydrophilic
hygr- wet Greek (hugros) hygrology
hyo- U-shaped Greek
hyp(o)- under Greek ?p? (hupo) hyphen
hyper- above, over Greek ?pe?(huper)
hypn- sleep Greek ?p??? (hupnos) hypnosis
hyster- later Greek ?ste??? (husteros) hysteresis


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ichth- fish Greek (ichthus) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
id(o)- shape Greek (eidos) idol
idi(o)- personal Greek (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignition
in- (1), im- in, on Latin in invite, incur, intend
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- in, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra- under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) - among, between intermission, intercollegiate, intercourse
intra- within Latin intra intracollegiate
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate
is(o)- equal, the same Greek (isos) isomorphic, isometric
-(i)tat- property of, quality of Latin quality, liberty
iter- again Latin iterum iteration
itin- route, way Latin iter, itinis - march, journey itinerary


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
jac- lie Latin jacere "to be thrown" adjacent
jac- (originally IAC), -ject- cast, throw Latin iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus - "to throw" (and cognates thereof) eject, interject, ejaculate, trajectory
jan- door Latin janua janitor
joc- joke Latin jocus jocularity
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct- join Latin jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture
junior- younger Latin junior juniority
jus-, jur, judic (originally IVS) law, justice Latin ius, iuris; iudex, iudicis; iusticia, iusticiae, etc. justice, jury, judge
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek chilioi kilogram, kilometer, kilobyte
kine- movement, motion Greek telekinesis, kinetic energy, kinesthetic
klept- steal Greek (kleptes) kleptomania
kudo- glory Greek (kudos) kudos


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- toil Latin labor collaboration, elaboration
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima "tear" lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- shine Greek lampas "torch" lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis, lapidis lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat(i)- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus, lateris bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudere laud
lav- wash Latin lavare lavatory
lax- Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
led-, les- hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion
leio- smooth Greek leios leiomyoma
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis "lion" Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek lepis Lepidoptera
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)- white Greek leukos leucocyte
lev- lift, light Latin levis "light" (in weight), levare elevator, levitation
liber- free Latin liber, liberare liberation
libr- book Latin liber library
lig- bind Latin ligare ligament, ligature
lin- line Latin linea linearity, line
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua tongue, language bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere relict, relinquish
lip(o)- fat Greek lipos lipolysis
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, literal, obliterate
lith(o)- stone Greek lithos "stone" monolith, Neolithic Era, lithosphere
loc- place Latin locus local, location
log- thought, word Greek logos "word" monologue, logic, morphological
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, eloquent
luc- bright, light Latin lux, lucis light Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere allude, illusion
lumin- light Latin lumen, luminis illumination, luminous
lun- moon Latin luna "moon" lunar, lunatic


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
macr- long Greek a???? (makros) macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnificent
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
mal- bad, wretched Latin malus malicious, malign, malfeasance
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammary, mammal
man- flow Latin manare emanate
man- stay Latin manere, mansus permanent, remanent
mand- hand Latin mandare, mandatus mandate, remand
manu- hand Latin manus manual, manuscript
mar- sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris matrix
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maximal
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius median, medieval
meg- great, large Greek (megas) megaphone
mei- Greek meiosis
melan- black, dark Greek ??a? (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melior- better Latin melior amelioration
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
mening- membrane Greek (meninx)
ment- mind Latin mens, mentis demented, mentality
mer- part Greek (meros) polymer
merc- Latin merx, mercis mercantile, merchant
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr- measure Greek (metron) metric, thermometer
meta- above, among, beyond Greek (meta) metaphysics
micr(o)- small Greek (mikros) microphone, microscope
milit- soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
mill- thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim- Greek (mimos) mime, mimic
min- jut Latin minere prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum miracle, mirror, admire
mis- hate Greek (misos) misandry, misogyny
misce-, mixt- mix Latin miscere miscellaneous, mixture
mit- thread Greek (mitos) mitochondrion
mitt-, miss- send Latin mittere intermittent, transmission
mne- memory Greek mnemonic
mol- grind Latin mola molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon(o)- one Greek (monos) monolith, monotone, monism
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
morph- form, shape Greek (morphe) morpheme, anthropomorphic, morphology
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortality
mov-, mot- move, motion Latin moveo, movere move, motor, momentum
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
mult(i)- many, much Latin multus multitude, multiple, multiplex
mur- wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae
mut- change Latin mutare mutation
my- mouse Greek (mus)
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek (murios) myriad
myth- story Greek (muthos) mythic, mythology
myx- slime Greek (muxa)
myz- suck Greek

meno- moon

mica- grain (Latin) e.g. 'micelle'

monil- string of beads


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
nar- nostril Latin naris
narc- numb Greek narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, natus nascent, native
naut- ship Greek (naus) astronaut
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne(o)- new Greek (neos) neologism
necr(o)- dead Greek (nekros) necrophobia
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connection
necto-, nect- swimming Greek nektos nectopod
neg- say no Latin negare negative
nema- hair Greek
nemoral- in woods
nephr- kidney Greek nephritis
nes- island Greek (nesos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek (neuron) neurology, neurosurgeon
nict- wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation
noct- night Latin nox, noctis nocturnal
nod- knot Latin nodus node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law Greek (nomos)
nomad- Greek (nomas) nomadic
nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomination
non- not Latin non
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
noth- spurious
noto- back, south Greek (noton)
nov- nine Latin novem novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovation, nova
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim
nu- nod Latin
nub- Latin nubes, nubis
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis
nuch- back of neck
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudity
null(i)- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus numeral
-nounc-, -nunci- announce Latin nuntius
nupti- Latin
nutri- nourish Latin nutrient


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ob-, os- against Latin obstinate, ostentatious, obstreperous
oct- eight Greek (okto) octagon, octahedron
oct- eight Latin octo octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octavus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus ocular
od- hate Latin odium odious
-ode- path, way Greek anode, odometer
odont- tooth Greek (odous) odontology
odor- fragrant
oecious- house of Greek (oikos)
oed- swollen
oen- wine Greek (oinos)
oesoph- gullet Greek (oisophagos)
ogdo- eighth Greek (ogdoos)
-oid like Greek (-oeides)
olecran- skull of elbow
ole- oily Latin
olig- few Greek (oligos) oligarchy
oliv- olive Latin oliva
-ology study of Greek paleontology
-oma cancer Greek
omas- paunch Latin omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum
omin- Latin omen, ominis ominous
omm- eye
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence
omo- shoulder Latin
omphal- navel Greek omphalectomy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris onerous
onom- name Greek ???a (onoma) onomatopoeia
ont- existing Greek ontology
-onym name Greek (-onum) pseudonym
oo- egg Greek (oion)
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis opera
opt- choose Latin optare optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
op(t)- eye Greek optos optical
operculum- little cover
ophi- snake Greek ophis
ophthalm- eye Greek (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
opisth- behind Greek
opoter- either
or- mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle
ordin- Latin ordo, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
ori- Eastern Latin oriri orient
orn- Latin ornare ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ornithology
orth- straight Greek (orthos) orthosis
os(ti)- mouth
os(s/t)- bone osteoporosis
oscill- swing Latin oscillation
ostrac- shell Greek ostracize
ot- ear Greek otology
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovule
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek (oxus) oxymoron


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis pacify, pacifist
pach- thick Greek (pachus) pachydermata
paed- child Greek pa??, pa?d?? (pais, paidos) paediatric
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek (palaios) paleontology
palin- back Greek pa??? (palin) palindrome
pall- pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- mantle Latin pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palustri- in marshes
pan-, pam- all Greek pa? (pas) pandemic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par(a)- beside, near Greek pa?a (para) parallel, parameter
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part(i)- part Latin pars, partis partition
parv- little Latin parvus
pass- pace, step Latin passus
pat- be open Latin patere patent
path- to feel, hurt Greek pa??? (pathos) pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass- Latin pati, passus passive, patient
patr- father Latin pater, patris
pauc- Latin paucus paucity
pav- Latin pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccare impeccable
pect- fixed Greek pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pectin- comb-like
pecun- Latin pecunia pecuniary
ped- child Greek pa??, pa?d?? (pais, paidos) pedagogy
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis pedal
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pel-, puls- drive Latin pellere propellent, propulsion
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens- hang Latin pendere suspend
penia- deficiency Latin
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna pennate
pent- five Greek (pente) pentagon
pentecost- fiftieth Greek (pentekostos) pentecostalism
pept- Greek peptic
per- thoroughly, through Latin per perfect
peran- across, beyond Greek
peri- around Greek perimeter, periscope
persic- peach
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- Latin petere appetite, competition
petr- rock Greek (petra) petroglyph
phaeo- dark
phag- eat Greek fa?e?? phagein sarcophagus
phalan(g/x)- close formation of troops
phalar- shining
phanero- visible Greek fa?e???
pher- bear, carry Greek fe?? pheromone
philia- love, friendship Greek f???a
phleg- Greek
phloe- tree bark
phob- fear Greek f??? (phobos)
phon- sound Greek f??? (phone) microphone, phonograph
phor- carry Greek (phoros) metaphor
phos-, phot- light Greek f?? photograph
phragm- fence Greek (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind
phryno- toad, toad-like
phyl- tribe
phyll- leaf Greek (phullon) chlorophyll
physa- bladder
phys- nature Greek physics
phyt- plant Greek (phuton) neophyte
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis
pil- hair Latin
pin- pine Latin
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere picture
pino- drink Greek pinocytosis
pir- pear Latin
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces
pisum- pea
plac- plate, tablet Greek
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus placate
plac-, -plic- please Latin placere, placitus placid
plagi- oblique Greek (plagios)
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar
plang- Latin plangere plangent
plas- mould Greek plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek (platus) platypus
plaud-, plaus- clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complete, suppletive
pleb- Latin plebs, plebis plebian
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere
plen- full Latin plenus plenary
plesi- near Greek (plesios)
pleth- full Greek (plethos) plethora
pleur- side Greek pleura
plex- interwoven Greek (plexis)
plic- fold Latin plicare duplication, replicate
plinth- brick Greek (plinthos)
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage
plumb- lead Latin plumbum
plur- Latin plural
plurim- most Latin plurimus
plus- more Latin plus
pluvi- rain Latin pluvia pluvial
pneu- air, lung Greek pneumatic
pod- foot Greek (pous, podos) podiatry, tripod
pogo- beard
poie- make Greek p??e? poiesis
pol- city Greek p???? (polis) metropolis, politics
pol- pole Greek (polos) dipole
pol- pole Latin polus polar
polem- war Greek p??e?? (polemos) polemic
poli(o)- grey Greek (polios)
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis
pollin- Latin pollen, pollinis pollinate
poly- many Greek p???? (polus) polygon
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere position, postpone
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis ponderable
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis
popul- people Latin populus population
por- passage Greek (poros) pore
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porphyr- purple Greek
port- gate Latin porta portal
port- carry Latin portare export, transportation
post- after, behind Latin post post-game
pot- drink Latin potare potable
potam- river Greek p?ta?? (potamos)
praeco- early
prasin- leek-green Greek (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae previous
prec- pray Latin prex, precare deprecation
pred- Latin praedari predator
prehend-, prend- grasp Latin prehendere comprehend
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere pressure
presb- old Greek p?es?? (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter
preti- price Latin pretium
prim- first Latin primus primary, primitive, primevil
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- separate Latin privare
pro- before, in front of Greek p?? (pro)
pro- for, forward Latin pro propulsion
prob- try Latin probare probation
proct- anus Greek (proktos) proctology
propri- Latin proprius appropriate
pros(o)- forward Greek (pros)
prot(o)- first Greek (protos) protoplasm
proxim- nearest Latin proximus proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamma- sand Greek (psammos)
pseud(o)- false Greek (pseudos) pseudonym
psil(o)- bare Greek (psilos) epsilon
psych(o)- mind Greek ???? (psyche) psycho
psychr(o)- cold Greek (psuchros)
pter- wing, fern Greek (pteron) helicopter
pto- fall Greek ptosis
ptyal- sahva
ptych- fold, layer Greek (ptuche) triptych
pubi- sexually mature
public- Latin publicus publication
pude- Latin pudere impudent
pugn- fight Latin pugnare pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere puncture, pungent
puni- punish Latin punire punitive
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, puppet
pur- pure Latin purus impure, purity
purg- Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory
purpur- purple Latin purpura
put- think Latin putare compute, putative
pygo- rump
pyl- gate Greek (pulon) pylon
pyo- pus Greek
pyr- heat, fire Greek pyre,pyro
pyrus- pear


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus quartary quartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi
quatern- four each Latin quaterni quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass- shake Latin quatere
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qui- Latin quies quiet
quin- five each Latin quini quinary
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque quinquennium
quint- fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quota, quotient


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
rach- spine Greek (rhachis)
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion
radi- beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiation
radic- root Latin radix, radicis eradicate, radical
ram- branch Latin ramus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana Rana
ranc- Latin rancere rancid, rancor
rap- turnip Latin rapum
raph- seam Greek
rar- Latin rarus rarity
rauc- harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous
re-, red- again, back Latin re- recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect- straight Latin regere, rectus dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem- oar Latin remus bireme, trireme
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile
ret- net Latin rete reticle, retina
retro- backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective
rhabd- rod Greek (rhabdos)
rhach- spine Greek (rhachis)
rhage- tear, rent Greek
rhe- flow Greek (rhein) rheostat
rhin- nose, snout Greek (rhis, rhinos) rhinoplasty
rhiz- root Greek (rhiza) rhizome
rhod(o)- rose Greek (rhodon) rhododendron
rhomb- Greek rhombus
rhynch- snout Greek
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere, risus derision, ridicule
robor- oak, strength Latin robur, roboris corroboration
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare interrogation
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation
rub(e)r- red Latin ruber ruby
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere, ruptus eruption, rupture
rur- country Latin rus, ruris rural


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
sacchar- sugar Greek (sakchar) saccharin
sacr-, secr- sacred Latin sacer, sacrare consecrate, sacrament
sagac- Wise Latin sagax, sagacis sagacity
sagitt- arrow Latin sagitta Sagittarius
sal- salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity, saline
sali-, -sili-, salt- jump Latin salire resilient, salient, saltus
salv- save Latin salvare salvation
san- Latin sanus insane, sanity
sanct- holy Latin sancire sanctify, sanctuary
sanguin- blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis sanguine
sapi-, -sipi- Latin sapere sapient
sapon- soap Latin sapo, saponis saponify
sarc(o)- flesh Greek sa?? (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
sativus- cultivated
saur- lizard, reptile Greek sa???? (sauros) dinosaur
saxum- rock
scab- scratch Latin scabere
scal- ladder, stairs Latin scala scale
scalen- uneven Greek skalenos scalene
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens- climb Latin scandere ascend
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek
schem- plan Greek (schema) schematic
schis- split Greek schism
sci- know Latin scire prescient, science
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere scissors
scler- hard Greek (skler-) scleroderma
scoli- crooked Greek (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scopy, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek
scrib-, script- write Latin scribere inscribe, scripture
sculp- carve Latin sculpere sculpture
scut- shield
scyph- cup
se-, sed- apart Latin secede, sedition
seba- tallow, wax Latin Sebum, sebaceous
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- Latin sedare sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere reside, sediment, session, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
segetum- in cornfields
sei- shake Greek (seismos) seismograph
selen- moon Greek
sella- saddle, seat
sema- Greek (sema) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senility
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus consensus
sept- Latin saeptum
sept- seven Latin septem septennium
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere consecutive, sequence
ser(olu)- any body fluid
ser- late Latin serus
serp- crawl Latin serpere serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- Latin servare conservation
sesqui- Latin sesqui
set- hair
sever- Latin severus severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccus desiccate
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- Latin signum signal
sil- Latin silere silent
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil- group Latin similis assimilate, similarity
simul- Latin simulare simulation
singul- one each Latin singuli singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay
siph(o)- tube Greek siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere
soci- group Latin socius, sociare
sol- sun Latin sol solar
sol- warmth Latin solare consolation
solen- pipe, channel Greek solenoid
solv-, solut- Latin solvere solution
soma- body Greek s?a (soma) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia
somni- dream Latin somnium
son- sound Latin sonus resonance
soph- Wise Greek s?f?? (sophos) sophist
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror sorority
spati- space Latin spatium spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere conspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect- watch, look at Latin spectare spectator
specul- Latin speculari speculation
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare desperation
sperm- seed Greek (sperma)
sphen- wedge
spher- Greek (sphaira) spheroid
sphinct- closing
spic- spike Latin spica
spin- thorn Latin spina
spir- breathe Latin spirare respiration
spond-, spons- Latin spondere, sponsus
spondyl- vertebra
spu-, sput- spew, spit Latin spuere sputum
squal- Latin squalere squalid, squalor
squam- scale
squarros- spreading at tips
st- stand Latin stare stable, station, status
stalact- Greek (stalaktites) stalactite
stalagm- Greek (stalagmos) stalagmite
stae(rlt)- fat
stagn- Latin stagnare stagnant
stann- tin Latin stannum stannous
statu-, -stitu- Latin statuere institution, statute
steg- covering Greek steganography
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
sten- narrow Greek (stenos) stenography
stere- solid Greek (stereos)
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify
stern- breastbone
stich- line, row Greek (stichos)
stig- Greek stigma
still- drip Latin stillare distillation
stingu-, stinct- Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek
stom- mouth Greek
strept- twisted
string-, strict- upright, stiff Latin stringere stringent
strigos- having stiff bristles
stroph- turning Greek
stru-, struct- Latin struere construction
stud- Latin studere
stup- wonder Latin stupere
styl- column, pillar Greek (stulos)
su-, sut- sew Latin suere suture
suad-, suas- Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
suav- sweet Latin suavis suave
sub-, su-, sus- below Latin sub
subter- Latin subter subterfuge
sucr- sugar sucrose
sud- sweat Latin sudare
sulc- furrow Latin sulcus
sum-, sumpt- take Latin sumere assumption, consume
super- above, over Latin super supersede
supin- lying back Latin supinus
supra- above, over Latin
surd- deaf Latin surdus absurdity
surg- rise Latin surgere resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek s?? (sun) symbol, system
syrin(glx)- pipe Greek


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
tac-, -tic- be silent Latin tacere, tacitus reticent, tacit
tach- swift Greek ta??? (tachus) tachometer
taenia- ribbon Greek (tainia)
tal- ankle Latin talus
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch Latin tangere, tactus contact, tangent
tapet- carpet Latin
tard- slow Latin tardus retard, tardy
tars- ankle Greek tarsal
taur- bull Greek ta???? (tauros) Minotaur
taur- bull Latin taurus Taurus
tax- arrangement, order Greek (taxis) taxonomy
techn- Greek (techne) technology
teg-, tect- cover Latin tegere, tectus protection
tel- far, end Greek telephone, telescope, telegram
teleo- complete Greek teleology
temno- cut Greek
tempor- time Latin tempus, temporis temporary, temporal.
ten-, -tin-, tent- hold Latin tenere, tentus continent, tenacious
tend-, tens- stretch Latin tendere, tensus extend, extension
tenu- slender, thin Latin tenuis attenuate, tenuous
tep- be warm Latin tepere tepid
ter-, trit- rub Latin terere, tritus attrition, contrite
teres- round
terg-, ters- wipe Latin tergere, tersus detergent
termin- Latin terminus determine, termination
tern- three each Latin terni ternary, ternion
terr- dry land Latin terra terrace, terrain, terracotta
terti- third Latin tertius tertian, tertiary
test- witness Latin testis testimony
tetr- four Greek (tetra-) tetrahedron
tex-, text- weave Latin texere, textus texture
thalam- chamber, bed
thalass- sea Greek ?a?assa (thalassa) Panthalassa
than- death Greek ?a?at?? (thanatos) euthanasia
the- put Greek t???? (tithemi) theme, thesis
theca- case Greek
thel(o)- nipple, female Greek
the(o)-, thus- god Greek ?e?? (theos) theology, enthusiasm
theor- Greek theorem, theory
therm- heat Greek ?e??? (thermos) thermometer
thero- breast, mammal Greek
thyreo- large shield
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid
ting-, tinct- moisten Latin tingere, tinctus tincture
tom- cut Greek ectomy
ton- stretch Greek
top- place Greek t?p?? topic, topography
torn- cut
torpe- numb torpere torpor
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere, tortus extortion, torque, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus total
toxo- arrow, dart
trab- beam
trachy- rough
trago- goat
trah-, tract- pull Latin trahere, tractus subtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez- four-sided, table Greek (trapeza) trapezoid
traum- wound Greek (trauma) trauma, traumatic
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek triskaidekaphobia
trem- tremble Latin tremere tremor
trema- hole
tri- three Greek (treis, tria) triad, trigon, tripod
tri- three Latin tres triangle, trivia, triumvirate
tricen- thirty each Latin triceni tricenary
tricesim-, trigesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trich- hair Greek (thrix)
trin- three each Latin trini trinity
troch- wheel Greek
trop- turning Greek tropic
troph- feed, grow Greek pogonotrophy
trud-, trus- thrust Latin trudere, trusus extrusion, intrude
tuss- cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis
tympan- drum Greek t?pa?- (tumpan-) tympani


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
uber- udder Latin uber, uberare exuberant
ulig- in marshes Latin
ulo- wooly Greek
ultim- farthest Latin ultimus ultimate
ultra- beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic
umbilic- navel Latin umbilicus umbilical
umbr- shade, shadow Latin umbra penumbra, umbrella
un-, uni- one Latin unus, unius unary, union
unc- hooked Latin uncus
unci- ounce, twelfth Latin uncia uncial
und- wave Latin unda abundant, undulate
undecim- eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal
unden- eleven each Latin undeni undenary
ungui- claw, nail Latin unguis
ungul- claw, hoof Latin ungula ungulate
ur-, uro- tail Greek (oura) uroid
urb- city Latin urbs, urbis urban
urg- work Latin/Greek urgere urgent
urs- bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine
ut-, us- use Latin uti, usus utility
uv- grape Latin uva uvea
uxor- wife Latin uxor uxoricide


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
vac- empty Latin vacare vacancy, vacation, vacuum
vad-, vas- go Latin vadere evade, pervasive
vag- wander Latin vagus, vagare vague
van- Latin vanus vanity
vap- lack (of) Latin evaporation, vapid
veh-, vect- carry Latin vehere, vectus vehicle, vector
vel- veil Latin velum revelation, velate
vell-, vuls- pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion
veloc- quick Latin velox, velocis velocity
ven- vein Latin vena venosity
ven- hunt Latin venari venison
ven-, vent- come Latin venire advent, convention
vend- sell Latin vendere vendor, vending
vener- Latin venus veneration, venereal
vent- wind Latin ventus ventilation
ventr- belly Latin venter ventral
ver- true Latin verus verify, verity
verb- word Latin verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber- whip Latin verber reverberation
verm- worm Latin vermis vermiform
vern- spring Latin ver, vernus vernal
vert-, vers- turn Latin vertere, versus convert, inversion, invert, vertical
vesic- bladder Latin vesica vesical
vesper- evening, western Latin vespera vesperal
vest- clothe, garment Latin vestis divest, vest
vestig- follow, track Latin vestigium investigate
vet- forbid Latin vetare veto
veter- old Latin vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran
vi- way Latin via deviate, obvious, via
vic- change Latin vicis vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen- twenty Latin viceni vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth Latin vecesimus vicesimary, vigesimal
vid-, vis- see Latin videre, visus video, vision
vil- cheap Latin vilis vile, vilify
vill- shaggy hair, velvet Latin villus villiform
vin- wine Latin vinum vinous
vinc-, vict- conquer Latin vincere, victus invincible, victory
vir- man Latin vir virility
vir- green Latin virere virid
visc- / viscer- body cavity Latin viscum visceral
vit- life Latin vita vital
vitell- yolk Latin vitellus
viti- fault Latin vitium vice, vitiate
vitr- glass Latin vitrum vitreous
viv- live Latin vivere revive, survive, vivid
voc- voice Latin vox, vocis vocal, vocation, provocative
vol- fly Latin volare volatility
vol- wish Latin velle volition
volv-, volut- roll Latin volvere, volutus convolution, revolve
vom- discharge Latin vomere vomit
vor-, vorac- swallow Latin vorare, vorax devour, voracious
vov-, vot- vow Latin vovere, votus votive
vulg- common, crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner- wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
vulp- fox Latin vulpes, vulpis vulpine


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
xanth- yellow Greek (xanthos) xanthogenic
xen- foreign Greek ?e??? (xenos) xenophobia
xer- dry Greek (xeros) xerography
xiph- sword Greek (xiphos) xiphoid
xyl- wood Greek (xulon) xylophone


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
-zo- animal, living being Greek (zoion) protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon- belt, girdle Greek ???? (zone) zone
zyg- yoke Greek (zugon) heterozygous, zygote
zym- ferment Greek (zume) enzyme, lysozyme